PEDN – 111

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Title: Introduction to physical education definition, objectives, scope, and importance: physical culture: Warming up-Need and requirement of first aid Introduction

The concept of physical education is generally understood as organisation of some games, sports or physical education activities in schools. There are schools where specific periods are allocated for this subject in the time table. It has been noticed that during such periods most of the students are either left on their own to play the games in a way they like or they are taken to the field where they engage themselves in different sports without the guidance or supervision of teachers. In some schools, selected students play games like football, cricket, volleyball: hockey, basketball, and so on. Annual sports are organised, but again in such activities only a few selected students participate: All these experiences taken together provide a basic understanding of the physical education as a concept


Physical education is a integral part of education which gives instructions in the development and care of the body ranging from simple calisthenic exercises to a course of study providing training in hygiene, gymnastics and the performance and management of athletics games

Objectives of Physical Education

  • > Develop motor abilities like strength, speed, endurance, coordination, flexibility, agility and balance, as they are important aspects for good performance in different games and sports.
  • Develop techniques and tactics involved in organised physical activities, games and
  • sports, Acquire knowledge about human body as its functioning is influenced by physical
  • activities
  • Understand the process of growth and development as participation in physical activities
  • has positive relationship with it.


Title: Meaning and importance of Physical Fitness and Wellness: Physical fitness components speed, strength, endurance, power, flexibility, agility, coordination and balance: Methods of Training: aerobic and anaerobic exercises; weight training, circuit training. Interval training, Fartlek training Introduction

In earlier classes, physical lities has been defined as the capacity of a perin li carry out the daily activities without undue fatigue Physical fitness is considered as a measure of the body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively during work and leisure activities in order to remain physically fit and healthy, we need to engage ourselves in physical activities and take measures for physically fit. Physical fitness is an important area of discussion as the member of childrens becoming ohew The normal physical activities, which were done in cartier limes bot at home and outside as part of day-to-day routine have reduced due to development of science und technology. The work that was deme manually is now being carried out by machines. The une of automated equipment such as automatic machines, remotes, mobiles and changes in lifestyles affect health and physical line it has become a matter of doep thinking for all of us Now a days we find increased marketing a packaged food and diet for physical Times. Many such health products now and advertised in TV and radio, and in newspapers, booklets und magazine it is important for all of to understand this physical fitness cannot be achieved without doing physical exercise regularly. We should not resort to aby shortcut that is frequently advertised in the media these days to achieve finess or maintain balance in life style. Moreover, these products may have side effects in our daily life.

Physical Fitness and its Importance

  • Improves the functioning of heart and lungs by increasing the availability of oxygen to all
  • tissues and orgies in the body system
  • Improves muscle tone
  • Promotes the development of good posture, proportionate figure, and thereby positive
  • body image and physical appearance
  • Ensures quick recovery after injury and illness
  • Decreases the risk of cardio-vascular disease


Title: Still of Volleyball, Rules & Regulations, Advance Skill of Volley hall. Specific Warming up.

a basic Skills in Volleyball

1.Passing is often thought of as the most important skill in volleyball. If you can’t pain the serve

then you won’t ever put your trans in a position to score a point.

2 The importance of serving is often undervalued Many coaches don’t teach players to se aggressive and use this opportunity to give the team an advantage for scoring points

3.Blocking is perhaps the least taught skill in volleyball Players can get away with poor blocking skills because nod blocking isn’t going to hurt the team as much as being pour at executing other skills in volleyball

4.Digging is another skill that isn’t focused on quite as much as most skills in volleyball

5. The setter position considered to be the most important position in volleyball. The ser basically runs the team offense

Rules & Regulation

1. The Serve: The server shall stand with both feet behind the rear boundary fine and serve from any position behind the boundary line There are no restrictions as to how the hall may be served except that it must be clearly hit, not thrown or pushed.

2. It is illegal for the receiving team to block or spike the ball directly off of a serve

3. Legal Contact Legal contact is a touch of the ball by a player’s body, above and below

the waist Players are not permitted to scoop, hold, or throw the hall. The ball must not  visibly come to rest on the player’s hands, fingers, or any other part of the body.

4.A player shall not make successive contacts with the ball unless he/she has blocked a bull

at the net

5. A ball, other than a serve may be recovered from the net provided the player avoids

contact with the net and does not catch or hold the ball.

6. The hall must always be returned over the net by the third contact, unless a block is the initial comict in which case the ball must be returned by the fourth contact.

7. Blocking Blocking is an act at the net which intercepts the hall coming from the opponent’s side by making contact with the ball as it crosses the met, before it crosses the nit, or immediately after it crosses the net



Title: Skill of Football Rules & Regulations. Advance Skill of Foot ball & Specific

Warming up

Fundamental Skills

Dribbling- This is the most important skill in the game. The built is dribbled on the ground with gentle strokes of the feet and moving in a specific direction with control. In dribeting, the player can use either the inside or the outside of the fest

Heading – Player should have made contact with the foretad in geral atlerwise any part of the head can be used. Sometimes the player may use the top of his head do a long pass or tho in. It is important for the player to keep eyes open and fixed on the hall and the body be positioned in line.

Kicking – The ball is kicked by keeping the toe pointed out and ankle locked, strike the hall with laces pan (in step) of the foot Knees should he kept slightly hent and the ball should be kicked straight up into the air. The Kicking leg should keep on swinging forward and upward direction in the direction of kicking

Tackling – This is gaining the ball possession or knocking it out from the opposing footballer

Passing The Instep or the push puss is a common pass used in football. In its the passing foot

mens outward, focking the ankle, keeping the knee slightly flexed. It is a push type of action


Title: Skill of Kabaddi Rules & Regulations, Advance Skill of Kabaddi, Skill of Kho-Kho. Rules & Regulations. Advance Skill of Khokho, & Specific Warming up


You may be familiar with Kabaddi game. Kabaddi is one of the Indian games that demands agility, power and neuro muscular coordination. It also needs breath-holding capacity, quick response and a great deal of presence of mind. The game can be played on a plain and soft surface.

The 1st Asian Kabaddi Championship was held in the year 1980 and was included as a demonstration game in the 9th Asian Games, New Delhi in the year 1982. The game was included in the South Asian Federation (SAF) games from the year 1984 at Dhaka, Bangladesh Kabaddi was included as a discipline in the 11th Asian Games Beijing 1990 and India won the lone Gold Medal of Kabaddi in the 11th Asian GamesBeijing 1990.

a.Fundamental Skills:

Raiding Skills

The raider uses the following skills to make a successful raid.

• Feint or fake A movement the raider uses to confuse the defender about his next

• Leading leg raid – The raider assumes a hoxer’s shuffle stance throughout the raid

– Shuffling raid The mider shuffles his her feet throughout the raid and suddenly changes the


• Reverse step raid – The raider keeps changing his/her attacking front foot and back foot

throughout the raid.

Hand touch the raider extends his/her arm towards the defenders and tries to create a

struggling action to make one opponent our Hand swings – These are used by the raider to touch his her opponents or to touch one of the


Toe touch-Here the raider extends his/her toes forward to touch the defender to touch out one of the opponents.

Foot touch- In this skill, the raider tries to touch the defender with his her foot to touch out one of the opponents.



Title: Skill of Basket ball, Rules & Regulation, Advance Skill of Basket ball, Specific Warming up

The game of basketball was originated at the Springfield College of Physical Education Massachusetts, USA in 1891 by Dr James Naismith. In 1894 Naismith drew up the first 13 rules, which still form the basis of modern basketball rules. In India, the YMCA at Kolkata introduced basketball some 80 years ago. Later the YMCA established at Chennai in 1920 played un important role in the development of this game. Now-a-days basketball is one of the most favourite games in many schools and colleges. The game is played by both men and women of all ages and abilities. In order to promote the sport nationally and internationally and organise sports events related Basketball Federation of India (BFI) was set up in 1950. At the same time every state in India had formed a State Basketball Association. The first National Basketball event was held in Delhi in 1934, every two years till 1951 and there after it became an annual feature.

How to Play Basketball

1.Basketball is played on a rectangular court, which could be an indoor wooden court or un outdoor concrete coun. Basketball court dimensions are 28- 15 metres. The court is divided into two sections, called half-courts, by the mid-court line. where the game starts with a jumpball. A jumpball is when a referee throws the ball up at centre circle to determine which team gets possession. Two players from opposing teams Jump up to tip the ball, inthe hope that one of them will secure the ball.

2. The duration of the game of each quarter is ten minutes with 2 minute rest between first and second quarters and third and fourth quarters. Between second and third quarters the rest is 15 minutes. The duration of extra time is five minutes. Teams exchange courts in each quarter. The clock is stopped while the play is not active.

3. A team may consist of not more than twelve members including a captain. But only five

players from each team are on the court at one time. Substitutions are unlimited but can only be

done when play is stopped.

4. The team with the ball, attempting to score is called “on offense. The team defending from scoring is called on defense. The ball is mov in two ways: dribbling and passing t


Title: Skill of Athletics, Long and Short Distance running, Skill of athletic jumping events.

throwing events

A. Running Events

1. Short Distance or Sprints

A sprint is a short running race. In a track and field competition there are generally three different sprint distances: 100m, 200m, and 400m. The original Olympic event, the stadion race. was a sprint of around 180m. A sprint race starts out with the runners in starting blocks in their lame. The official will say “on your marks”. At this point the racer should be focused on the track, have their feet placed in the blocks, fingers on the ground behind the starting line, hands slightly wider than shoulder width, muscles relaxed. Next the official will say “Set”. At this point the runner should get their hips slightly above shoulder level, feet pushed hard into the blocks. holding their breath and ready to race. Then there is the hang and the race has started. The runner should exhale and run out of the ocks not jumping. The initial part of the race the runner is accelerating to top speed. Once top speed is achieved then endurance kicks in as the runner tries to maintain that speed for the rest of the sprint Sprinters should remain relaxed while running and move their arms in a straight back and forth motion. 2.Middle Distance

The middle distance races are the 800m, the 1500m, and the 1 mije long runs. These races require different skills and tactics to win that the sprints. They rely more on endurance and paring than just pure speed. Also, the runners don’t stay in a single fane for the entire race. They Han out in staggered lanes, us minke the distance the same for each runner, but the race soon becomes open with no lanes and the runners must to pass around each other to gain the lead. 3.Long Distance

There are three main long distance races the 3000m, the 500thm, and the 10.00tm races. These ces are similar to the middle distance rices, but the emphasis is even more on correct pacing mil endurance.

A bundles race is one in which obstacles are placed at intervals along the track that the Pitten must jump over on their way the finish line. Typical hurdle races are the 100m and 400m for women and 110 and 400m for men. Timing, footwork, and technique are key in wining



Title: Yoga- History. Meaning and importance, Role of yoga in life

The History of Yoga

Yoga has its origin thousands of years ago in India. It has originated from a universal desire towards attaining happiness and getting rid of sufferings. According to yogic lore. Shiva is considered as the founder of Yoga. A number of seals and fossil remains of Indus Valley Civilisation , dating back to 2700 BC indicates that yoga was prevalent in ancient India. However, systematic reference of yoga is found in Patanjali’s Yogudarshna Maharishi Patanjali systematised the yogic practices. After Patanjali, many sages and yogis contributed to its development and as a result, yoga has now spread all over the World. In this sequence, on 11 December 2014, the United Nations General Assembly (LNGA) with 193 members approved the proposal to celebrate ‘June 21′ as the “International Yoga Day’.

Objectives of Yogic Practices

To develop a understanding of yogic practices and apply this understanding accordingly in one’s life and living

To develop a healthy habit and lifestyle in children. To develop humane values in children.

To develop physical, emotional and mental health through yogic activities.

What is Yoga?

The word ‘Yoga is derived from Sanskrit root yuj which means join’ or ‘unite. This may be taken as the union of body, mind and soul, and is used in the literature both as an end as well as means: As an end, yoga signifies integration of personality at the highest level. As means, yoga includes various practices and techniques which are employed to achieve the development of Mach integration. These practices and techniques are means in the yogic literature and are also referred collectively as Yoga

Importance of Yoga

Good Health is the right of every human being. But this right depends on individual. social and environmental factors. Along with social or environmental factors to a farge extent. we can develop a better immune system and a better perception of oneself so that other conditions do not affect us adversely and we can achieve good health


What is Omkar

Title: Omkar, Yogic kriya, Yogie Suksma vyayamas

Pranava, the sound of creative AUM vibration, is the mother of all sounds. The intelligent cosmic energy of AUM that issues forth from God, and is the manifestation of God, is the creator and substance of all matter. This holy vibration is the link between matter and spirit. Meditation on AUM is the way to realize the true Spirit-essence of all creation. By inwardly following the sound of Pranava to its source, the yogi’s consciousness is carried aloft to God. Omkar is the symbol of Brahmari. AUM is the infinity, AUM is eternity. AUM is immortality. AUM is the source of everything. From AUM proceed all sounds. In AUM exists all objects.

Practice of chanting Omkar:

Practice of Oml chanting for 5 minutes Please sit in a relaxed position, keep your spine erect and gently close your eyes. Try to relax your whole body, relax your left hand from fingers to shoulder, relax your right hand from finger to shoulder. Relax left foot from toes to waist: relax right foot from toes to waist. Now concentrate on the front side of your body, abdomen, chest. Concentrate on the backside of your body, neck muscles, spine, shoulders upper hack, lower back, now try to relax your face, chin, left check, right cheek, left eye. eyelid. eye ball, eyebrow, right eye eye lid, ese hall, evebrow. forehead, top of the head, backside of the head. After relaxing the whole body, concentrate on your natural breathing for some time. Start practicing deep breathing very slowly Inhale and exhale slowly and deeply.. relax whole body Alin and again, inhale deeply, exhale deeply, try to increase the amount of oxygen with deep breathing deep inhalation, deep exhalation, after few deep breaths concentrate on normal heathing Chant Aum (AUMMMMMM) for 5 minutes and finish with shanti paath. Om shanti

Yogic kriya

1-Kapalabhati (Stimulating the brain cells by purifying the brain)

The KAPALBHATType of kriya is a quaint amalgamation of two words, where KAPAL denotes skull and the functions, organs associated with it and BHATI that denotes Glow, She and Luminosity Fence this category of sharkriya is dedicated to the purification


Title: Yogasana- in Standing posture (Tadasana, Vrikshasana, Padahastasana, Ardha

Chakrasana, Trikonasana)

1.Tadasana (Palm tree posture)

Tada in Sanskrit means ‘palm tree. This is called Tadasana because in this asana the student

stands straight like a palm tree. Hence, it has been named Fadasana

Let us perform Tadasana by following the steps given below:

1. Stand erect, feet together, hands by the side of the thighs. Keep the back straight and gaze in


2. Stretch the arms upward, keep them straight and parallel with each other in vertical position.

with the palms facing inward.

3. Slowly raise the heels as much as you can and stand on toes. Stretch body up as much as

possible. Maintain the position for 5-10 seconds. 4, To come back, bring the heels on the floor first. Slowly bring down the hands by the side of

the thighs and relax.


Let us perform Vrikshasana by following the steps given below: . Begin by standing upright in Samasthithi, your arms by your side and shoulders relaxed

• Bend your right knee to the side and bring your right foot high up to your left thigh:

• Place the sole of your right foot flat and firm on your inner left thigh. Maintain your left leg

desight with the foot firmly planted on the mat

• Breathe easy and find your balance While inhaling deeply, gracefully raise both your arms over your head and join your palms

in the namaskara mudra

• Keep a firm distante

Ano for a straight spine while taking extended deep breaths

Increase your relaxation with every exhalation to help you hold the pose for as long as possible

ale and exhiale deeply as you bring your hands down to the side of your body and gently

release the right log

Repeat the above steps with the other leg



Title: Yogasana- Sitting postures (Asanas viz: Bhadrasana, Virasana, ArdhaUstrasana,


Ushtrasana, sasakasana and Vakrasana).

1. Sit on the floor with legs stretched out.

2. Fold both the legs and bring them close to each other. The souls of the feet must touch each other.

3. Use the hands to hold the toes of the feet. Pull the legs towards the perineum. The legs should rest on the ground, touching the floor. This will require a good amount of flexibility in the beginning.

4. Keep the spine straight and relax the trunk especially the shoulders.

5. Maintain this final pose for as long as comfortable. The breathing can be slow and rhythmic For physical benefits, practice the final pose with awareness of breath at the nose tip. For spiritual benefit one may also practice awareness of the Mooladhara chakra.


1. Kneel down, stretching your lower legs backward and keeping them together. Your big

toes and heels should be as closely held as possible. People with stiff ankles can support

the joint by rolling a towel underneath to support the ankle arch.

2. Gently lower your body such that your buttocks are resting on your heels and your thighs on your calf muscles

3. Place your hands on your knees, and set your gaze forward with your head absolutely straight.

4 Turn your attention to your breathing Be fully aware of how you breathe and carefully

observe as you inhale and exhale.

5. You could close your eyes to concentrate on your breathing and to calm your mind 6. Try to stay in this position for a minimum of 5 10 10 minutes,


1.Sit in Hero posse.

2. Keep the knces apart, leaving hip width between them.

3. Stund in your knees